Laura Batlle-Bayer, responsable de la línia d’Agroalimentació:

“El sector agroalimentari és dels més importants al nostre país i un dels que tenen més influència en l’impacte ambiental a nivell global. El nostre grup explora diferents maneres d’augmentar la sostenibilitat del sector, nacionalment i internacionalment, a través de diferents estratègies com l’estudi del cicle de vida dels aliments al llarg de tota la cadena de subministrament, l’aplicació dels principis de l’economia circular tant a la producció com al consum i la promoció d’hàbits alimentaris més saludables i amb menor impacte ambiental”.

COL·LABORACIONS I XARXES

  • China Dalian - School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dailan University of Technology
  • Universidad de Cantabria – Plan Nacional Coordinado

Articles Destacats

Purpose

The main purpose of this article is to assess the nutritional and economic efficiency of food loss and waste (FLW) along the supply of 13 food categories included in the Spanish food basket by means of the definition of a new method which combines two indexes.

Methods

The nutrient-rich foods index and the economic food loss and waste (EFLW) index were combined by means of linear programming to obtain the nutritional cost footprint (NCF) indicator under a life cycle perspective. The functional unit used was the daily supply of food for a Spanish citizen in year 2015.

Results and discussion

Results showed that vegetables and cereals were the food categories most affected by the inefficiencies in the food supply chain under a nutritional perspective, being agricultural production and household consumption the main stages in which the nutritional content of food is lost or wasted. Moreover, according to the NCF index, vegetables represented 27% of total nutritional-economic wastage throughout the entire Spanish agri-food chain. They are followed by fruits, which add up to 19%. Hence, specific food waste management strategies should be established for these specific products and supply stages. Finally, the sensitivity analysis performed highlighted that results were mostly independent from the importance attributed to either nutritional or economic variables.

Conclusions

The methodology described in this study proposes an indicator quantifying the nutritional-economic cost of different food categories in the Spanish food basket. This NCF indicator makes it possible to define reduction strategies to promote the use of food waste fractions for waste-to-energy valorization approaches or the extraction of different types of pharmacological, chemical, or cosmetic compounds.

Dietary choices, a main driver of food production, play a significant role within the climate change arena. Consequently, there is a growing trend on publishing research assessing the environmental impacts of diets and dietary shifts, mainly following the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. However, several methodological issues still bring a challenge, especially in the definition of the function and the quantification of the functional unit (FU).
The FU is the reference unit of an LCA study, and it is the basis for allowing comparison among different systems. This short communication defines the function of diets as the supply of the daily required amount of calories and nutrients, and it proposes a novel FU that accounts for the energy intake and the nutritional quality of the diet. In order to compare the performance of the proposed FU to the most commonly ones used for diet LCAs (mass-based and isocaloric), dietary scenarios within the Spanish context are assessed. On the one hand, using a mass-based FU, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are underestimated, since the nutrition properties of food are not considered, and, on the other hand, the isocaloric substitution does not allow comparison among diets with different levels of energy intake. In contrast, the proposed caloric-and nutrient-corrected FU allows to compare diets that differ in energy and nutritional quality in a fairer way. Finally, it is recommended to use this FU for future diet LCAs.

Recently, important efforts have been made to define food loss management strategies. Most strategies have mainly been focused on mass and energy recovery through mixed food loss in centralised recovery models. This work aims to highlight the need to address a decentralised food loss management, in order to manage the different fractions and on each of the different stages of the food supply chain. For this purpose, an energy flow analysis is made, through the calculation of the primary energy demand of four stages and 11 food categories of the Spanish food supply chain in 2015. The energy efficiency assessment is conducted under a resource use perspective, using the energy return on investment (EROI) ratio, and a circular economy perspective, developing an Energy return on investment – Circular economy index (EROIce), based on a food waste-to-energy-to-food approach. Results suggest that the embodied energy loss consist of 17% of the total primary energy demand, and related to the food categories, the vegetarian diet appears to be the most efficient, followed by the pescetarian diet. Comparing food energy loss values with the estimated energy provided for one consumer, it is highlighted the fact that the food energy loss generated by two to three persons amounts to one person's total daily intake. Moreover, cereals are the category responsible for the highest percentage on the total food energy loss (44%); following by meat, fish and seafood and vegetables. When the results of food energy loss and embodied energy loss are related, it is observed that categories such as meat and fish and seafood have a very high primary energy demand to produce less food, besides that the parts of the food supply chain with more energy recovery potential are the beginning and the end. Finally, the EROIce analysis shows that in the categories of meat, fish and seafood and cereals, anaerobic digestion and composting is the best option for energy recovery. From the results, it is discussed the possibility to developed local digesters at the beginning and end of the food supply chain, as well as to developed double digesters installations for hydrogen recovery from cereals loss, and methane recovery from mixed food loss.

The great concern regarding food loss (FL) has been studied previously, but in an isolated way, disregarding interdependencies with other areas. This paper aims to go a step further by proposing a new procedure to assess different waste management alternatives based on the nexus approach by means of an integrated Water-Energy-Food-Climate Nexus Index (WEFCNI). The environmental profile of the waste management techniques is determined using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) which, in combination with Linear Programming (LP), explores the optimal aggregation of weighting factors that lead to an aggregated nexus index. The management of residues from the anchovy canning industry in Cantabria (Spain) has been used as a case study, considering the three current applied alternatives: (i) valorisation of FL as animal feed in aquaculture (food waste-to-food approach), (ii) incineration of FL with energy recovery, and (iii) landfilling with biogas recovery. The last two considered the use of energy recovered to produce a new aquaculture product (food waste-to-energy-to-food scenarios). The results indicate that incineration is the best performing scenario when the nutritional energy provided by the valorisation alternative is not high enough and the valorisation technology presents the highest water consumption. Therefore, a minimisation in the consumption of natural resources is suggested in order to improve the application of circular economy within the sector. The use of the nexus index as an environmental management tool is extendable to any food system with the aim of facilitating the decision-making process in the development of more sustainable products.

Reducing food losses (FL) has been identified as an essential means of increasing food security, while reducing pressure on natural resources. To assess the reliability of future strategies to reduce and manage FL along the food supply chain (FSC), not only their quantification but also the ‘qualification’ in both economic and nutritional terms must be considered. The methodology proposed in this work allows to quantify FL at the distinct stages of the FSC (agricultural production, postharvest and storage, processing, distribution, households and extradomestic consumption). In addition, economic and nutritional FL are estimated. A Nutritional Food Losses Footprint (NFLF) index is proposed to assess and balance the variables described. This index is used to define food recovery strategies focused on those food categories and stages of the FSC with lesser efficiency. NFLF distinguishes between food losses from cradle to gate (FL-ctog) and food losses from gate to grave (FL-gtog) depending on the scope of the analysis. The former provides information to producers, while the latter creates awareness among consumers. Furthermore, the potential for FL reduction is estimated through the quantification of avoidable and unavoidable FL.

Our study is focused on the Mediterranean region, in particular on Spain. Almost 20% of the national food production is estimated to be lost or wasted. Vegetables, fruits and meat result the food categories less efficient. Household consumption is the main responsible of FL generation, followed by agricultural production. Each Spanish citizen is estimated to throw away around 180€ per year, while a 76% could be saved.

Projectes Destacats

El objetivo principal de WASTE4GREEN es mitigar los efectos adversos sobre el Medio Ambiente y la Salud Humana de los pesticidas de origen químico que se utilizan actualmente en la protección del cultivo de fruta de hueso. Se demostrará la eficacia de 2 formulados de origen natural, seguros y sostenibles, cuyas materias activas se obtendrán a partir de residuos agroindustriales, que permitirán sustituir a los pesticidas de origen químico que se emplean en frutales de hueso. Los formulados serán susceptibles de ser comercializados en la UE en las etapas posteriores al proyecto.

El objetivo principal de CERES es conseguir un consumo de alimentos más responsable y sostenible a través de dietas más saludables que sean respetuosas con el medio ambiente y que específicamente contribuyan a la mitigación del cambio climático.

El objetivo del proyecto es desarrollar una ACV de los diferentes sistemas de envasado para la distribución de frutas y verduras en España.

El objetivo es diseñar e implementar estrategias para una gestión sostenible del sector de la anchoa del Cantábrico bajo una perspectiva de ciclo de vida. Estas estrategias deberían centrarse principalmente en aumentar el uso de las aguas residuales generadas actualmente, a fin de obtener coproductos de mayor valor añadido que puedan utilizarse en nuevos mercados verdes.

El objetivo del Proyecto HAproWINE es contribuir al desarrollo sostenible en el sector vitivinícola de la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León a través de la promoción del uso racional y sostenible de los recursos mediante un enfoque de ciclo de vida; la oferta y la demanda de productos con una huella ecológica menor a lo largo de su ciclo de vida; la prevención, recuperación y reciclaje de los residuos de la bodega; y la síntesis de compuestos de alto valor añadido que pueden obtenerse de las diferentes corrientes de residuos de vino. Los principales resultados del proyecto incluyen la identificación de las diferentes corrientes del sector vitivinícola, los compuestos de valor añadido que se pueden obtener de los flujos de residuos del vino y las estrategias para obtenerlos. También se ha desarrollado una etiqueta que distingue al vino ambientalmente responsable, junto con la definición de las Reglas de Categoría de Producto y las Declaraciones Ambientales de Producto para series de las bodegas participantes.

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